He thought that employer should pay to employee that amount of money should be linked to the amount that employee. In addition to this, they can help a manager to focus on his thoughts on the different ways in which individuals relate to and carry out work. Prevalence Theory X was the predominant management style during the 20 th century. Disadvantages to applied nursing theory to clinicalpractitioner include the relevance of academic principals andapproaches to demographics of non-medical backgrounds. In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. According to McGregor, these tenets of management are based on less explicit assumptions about human nature.
Many argue that although the theories are easy to understand they are far too simplistic to be useful. The theory also allows the leaders to know the specific tasks they are responsible for without any confusion. Douglas McGregor is a social psychologist and applied two sets of assumptions to the organizational structure called Theory X and Theory Y. His book The Human Side of Enterprise 1960 had a profound influence on the management field, largely due to his Theory X and Theory Y. According to McGregor 2000 , Theory X tends to believe that human is innately lazy, they will postpone accomplishing task if possible and are not willing to take responsibility, therefore they need to be heavily supervised and controlled. They will also avoid taking responsibility and initiative. The Scientific information is always methodical, standardized and authorized knowledge; as scientific knowledge is logical and rational.
Scientific Selection, Training and Development of Workers 3. Second, the effect of Theory X and Theory Y on management functions is discussed. Limitations of traditional management helped pave the way for a widespread transition to Theory Y approaches. These managers, therefore, tend to be authoritarian. Maslow in his paper Theory Z and the other is Dr. They describe two contrasting models of workforce motivation.
Theory Y is a participative management style. Employees should be given opportunities to contribute to organizational well-being. With respect to people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, and modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization. Utilizing Theory X at suitable workplaces can maximize mass production with more quality According to McGregor once the lower order needs are fulfilled then thus no longer are motivators for Theory X people. Their activities must be directed. According to Theory Z, people want to maintain a work-life balance, and they value a working environment in which things like family, culture, and traditions are considered to be just as important as the work itself. Many people get great satisfaction from their work and take great pride in it; Others may view it as a burden, and simply work to survive.
What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Theory X And Theory Y? Wastage and inefficiency of all means are eradicated with the theory. We know that the magnetic property depends on the number of unpaired electrons present in the metal ion; Werner's theory is not related to electronic configuration and so this property could not be explained. Furthermore, different employees may have somewhat different characteristics; however, McGregor blended those sophisticated human natures into two simplistic models to introduce a quite deficient theory. It is possible in Theory Y because these employees seek responsibility, self-directed and need no control. An average employee needs formal direction. The theory focuses on efficiency, where workers were viewed as robots to speed up work.
Work motivation has been of interest for quit some time, and it was not until 1964 that Victor Vroom made the first attempt to formulate a theory called the Valance Expectancy Model. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control. Theory X Theory X assumes that the average. By this way, industrial disputes are reduced and peace in an industry is achieved. Since management takes complete responsibility, there is a reduction in workers role into rigid and adherence procedures where, the workers have no idea.
Overly bureaucratic: Over bureaucratic activity may be a major disadvantage in any organization. There is no scope for individual preference with this theory. For example, Japan has a highly skilled labor force that use technologically advanced equipment to produce cars and electrical equipment; however it does not have its own oil fields. In comparison, Theory Y has the idea that the managements assumes all employees are ambitious and self-motivated. Theory X managers rely on threat and coercion to achieve the obedience of employees.
Beneficial to the nation: With the help of scientific management theory there is enhanced beneficial aspects for the nation. As a result, the only way that employees can attempt to meet higher-level needs at work is to seek more compensation, so, predictably, they focus on monetary rewards. Theory X is the style that predominated in business after the mechanistic system of scientific management had swept everything before it in the first few decades of the 20th century. Theory Y employees rely on technology and incentives in order to thrive in the workplace. From this reasoning, McGregor proposed an alternative: Theory Y. Theory Y searches and discovers the ways in which an employee can make significant contributions in an organization. The government allows business to grow at will.
Work division: By applying scientific management theory there is a separation of work such as in planning any function and executing them. The savant is able to perform seemingly miraculous feats because the mind has been damaged in some way that in rare instances allows an area such as math, music, visual, art, etc. For example, task-oriented work requires task-oriented leadership. People dislike and avoid responsibility. He started by looking at international investments which classified into two: portfolio investment and direct investment. A strength is that it is easy to understand. Requires huge capital: The theory requires an investment of huge capital and is considered as a costly system.