For example, for placing a price list or an agreement. Thus, the moral intent of the morally-freighted proverbs or maxims discussed in this entry is considered relevant to the moral life of the human being and, as such, is purported to have universal application or reference. If an Afro-communal leader took over a firm that sold cigarettes or food with trans fats, she would make a concerted effort to shift production towards something that, for all we can tell, would not cause addiction, inflict serious bodily harm and, as a consequence of these, disrupt familial and friendly relationships. There is no human being who does not desire peace, security, freedom, dignity, respect, justice, equality, and satisfaction. This includes issues such as biodiversity, wildlife management, ecological preservation, hunting practices, farming techniques, and food regulations. There appears to be a conceptual tie—perhaps also a practical tie—between the social ethic prescribed by the communitarian ethos and the ethic of duty mandated by the same ethos.
Recognition of the worth of a human being is, according to the maxim, more important than caring for wealth. But central or basic to the African morality is character, for the success of the moral life is held to be a function of the quality of an individual's personal life. It is recommended that further research be undertaken on ubuntu leadership in the South African context and beyond. I shall simply abridge that which is already abridged for the purpose of pure relation of subject matter. There are some basic commonality in African thought, in matters sex, society, God, ancestor, etc etc. These include epistemology, logic, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics. In the context of a non-revealed religion, then, to make divine or supernatural commands the source of moral values and principles would be conceptually impossible.
For instance, the claim that the values and principles of African morality are not founded on religion simply derives from the characterization of traditional African religion as a non-revealed religion. The moral disapprobation of the people with regard to the actions—particularly the unsuccessful actions—of the deities constitutes the ground for the extinction of some of the deities from the Akan, possibly the African, pantheon. In this article, the authors attempt to clarify the notions of African philosophy and critical thinking in African philosophy. These are the main ideas the authors ascribe to African philosophy; however, there are a few components underlying all African philosophical thinking, namely ubuntu and communalism. Ifeanyi Menkiti, 1984: 176 Menkiti's statement adumbrates a conception of moral personhood, which will now be discussed in some detail.
There is a basic uniformity in African believes. Nurses use their personal philosophy to explain what he or she believes nursing is, the role of nursing in the healthcare field and how the nurse interacts with the patient. Similarly, the institutions of various kinds—legal, political, economic, moral and others—are set up in pursuit of certain commonly shared values and goals, that is, a common good which a human society desires to achieve for all of its members. Through the study of language, the chapter shows the loop holes in these developments, and suggests a comprehensive conception of ubuntu, that is based on virtue theory moral and intellectual virtues, community-oriented and individual-oriented virtues. Observations have been made by a number of scholars that Africans are a very—even a notoriously—religious people, that religion so deeply permeates all spheres of their lives that it cannot be distinguished from nonreligious aspects of life, that in the African traditional life there are no atheists, and that the African cultural heritage is intensely and pervasively religious. One is social; the other anti-social Malcolm J. Ubuntu and communalism are discussed as components underlying all strands of African philosophy.
In the light of our common humanity, it would not be appropriate—in fact it would demean our humanity—to place limits to our moral duties or responsibilities. It is an attempt to apply logic to problems such as the nature of man, the discovery of his essence, to explain his behaviour, the nature of presence and to the understand the world about him. The real meaning of the maxim, then, is that a human being deserves, and therefore ought, to be helped. The importance of health care to sustained economic and social development cannot be overlooked. African ethics, is a humanitarian ethics, the kind of ethics that places a great deal of emphasis on human welfare. Altruism is, thus, a fundamental moral value.
The implications of Ubuntu in the context of extending existing theories of individualism-collectivism and power distance cannot be overstated. Among this the 5 and 6 recognized Vedic authority. The researchers recommend the introduction of short courses on critical thinking and African philosophy as in-service training for teachers. The first interpretation implies that the human being has been determined to be good—to actually pursue virtue: thus, the human being's moral status is a settled matter. But the nature of the connection needs to be fully clarified. A bad person is said to be a person with a bad character, suban bone.
Thus, in the context of the activities of the moral life—in our decisions to obey moral rules, in the struggle to do the right thing and to avoid the wrong conduct, in one's intention to carry out a moral duty, the quality of a person's character is of ultimate consequence. These unfortunate situations or circumstances insistently call for the demonstration of sympathy, compassion, and willingness to offer some help. Generally proverbs are inherent in majorly all cultures of the world and are generally seen as succinct and pithy sayings in general. Social enterprise and networks studies in such settings, might also draw upon context specific network concepts, for instance 'Ubuntu' Lutz, 2009 if the focus of the research is Africa. The answer, based on the foregoing references, is that we moor it to the preoccupations of the African society with human welfare and social harmony, to reflections on the existential conditions in which human beings function. The dependency noted in the foregoing proverb is to be put down to the limited nature of the possibilities of the human individual. Black people, Education, Higher education 2767 Words 8 Pages Philosophy of Feminism Final Exam The philosophy of feminism involves attempting to use the methods of philosophy to further the cause of feminist movements.
This article grapples with the tendency amongst student teachers of Philosophy of Education to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, as well as to the notion of ubuntu. They recommend ways of teaching students the principles of thinking critically about the study materials they receive for a course in African philosophy, as well as how to think analytically before answering assignment questions. What I am concerned to point up in the present circumstance is the normative form of the judgment. In a revealed religion, what is revealed is generally elaborate and can be conceived to include moral principles and ideals as part of the will of God thus revealed. The Akan Doctrine of God: A Fragment of Gold Coast Ethics and Religion, London: Lutterworth Press. The world experience of the insects that can see ultraviolet is different than the human who cannot.
The foregoing maxims and many others similar to them in content and purpose all underline a social morality. Social life or sociality is natural to the human being because every human being is born into an existing human society. It involves precise, persistent and objective analysis of any claim, source or belief to judge its accuracy, validity or worth. Each of these actions or patterns of behavior is supposed or known to bring about social well-being. How then can we know if statements are meaningful or not? The students whose assignments were analysed seemed to miss the link between African philosophy and critical thinking. The reality or phenomenon of moral choice is a rejection of the notion of a fixed or settled moral character of an individual that derives from the presupposition—albeit false—that the human being is born virtuous.