For Americans the Revolution was a war for independence, and it was also a war for Indian land; for Indians, the Revolution was a war for their land, and it was also a war for their independence. This captivating book shows why. It also diminishes our understanding of Washington and his world. Probably more books have been written about Washington than about any other American, but few of them pay much attention to Indians, let alone consider the role they played in his life. By the end of his life, Washington knew more than anyone else in America about the frontier and its significance to the future of his country. American history has largely forgotten what Washington knew. It also provides lessons that will benefit scholars of any historical field.
Benjamin Hawkins, whom Washington appointed superintendent of the southern Indians, spoke Muskogee, was adopted by the Creeks, and had seven children with his common-law wife, Lavinia Downs, said by some to be a Creek woman. Pontiac's War, named after the Ottawa war chief, was really a war of independence in which Indian peoples resisted the British Empire a dozen years before American colonists did. Jefferson was interested in the ancient petroglyphs on the banks of the Kanawha River; Washington was more interested in the extent and fertility of his lands on those riverbanks. In accordance with Native American diplomatic protocol, everyone present smoked and passed around the long-stemmed pipe, in ritual preparation for good talks and in a sacred commitment to speak truth and honor pledges made. To look back at this influential contract and a turning point in the history of the United States, we present an excerpt from one of Oxford's Pivotal Moments in American History series ' Colin G. These Indian visits were not isolated events, and the Indians were not unwelcome dinner guests.
Professor Calloway has written many books on Native American history, including The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and The Transformation of North America 2006 ; One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark 2003 ; and two books for the Bedford Series in History and Culture: Our Hearts Fell to the Ground: Plains Indians Views of How the West Was Lost 1996 , and The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America 1994. Atlantic, September, 2003, Benjamin Schwarz, review of One Vast Winter Count, p. As a young man, he pursued wealth in land and a military reputation in the West; in his later years, the West became a key to building national unity. The Indian World of George Washington offers a fresh portrait of the most revered American and the Native Americans whose story has been only partially told. Anyone seeking a better understanding of the American frontier in the latter half of the eighteenth century would do well to start here.
In the teeth of a storm, they crossed the ice-clogged Delaware River from Pennsylvania to New Jersey and roundly defeated a garrison of Hessian soldiers at Trenton. The author writes of the origins of American Indians and how they adapted to the many environments they found in America. But Indian people had something to say about it, and were intent on defending their rights and the territory that colonial governments and land companies carved up so cavalierly. The book will give readers of all types the opportunity to understand a truly pivotal moment in American history. Calloway argues, convincingly, that Washington still viewed the Indian nations as simply part of the environment. This study guide contains the following sections: The World Turned Upside Down contains several texts written by Native Americans, from the time Europeans made first contact with the New World, up until the end of the American Revolution. He finds Jeffrey Amherst, the British commander-in-chief, arrogant and ignorant of Indian ways, and his policies significantly changed British-Indian relations, putting British lives in danger.
Calloway makes an effort to give a voice to the indigenous people who were too often marginalized, abused, and exploited by the arrival of land-hungry Europeans. When Washington looked at Indian country, he saw colonial space temporarily inhabited by Indian people. He covers a vast amount of material in a small amount of space yet manages to maintain its complex nuances without confusing the reader or obscuring the event. The dilemma was how to make it an orderly process rather than chaotic. America in 1763 was a crowded and often confused stage, Calloway says. Six Indian men, two Indian women , and two interpreters, representing the Kaskaskia, Peoria, Piankashaw, Potawatomi, and Mascouten Nations, had traveled more than eight hundred miles from the Wabash and Illinois country to see the president. Britain's attempt to rule its huge North American territory revealed the fragility of its imperial power.
A Chickasaw delegation on its way to see the president turned back on hearing of the epidemic in the fall. Journal of the American Revolution is the leading source of knowledge about the American Revolution and Founding. By seeing epic events through Native American eyes, as well as through the eyes of the Spanish, French, and English, Calloway captures the full continent-wide drama triggered by the end of the 'great war for empire' in 1763. They were a sophisticated people with their own civilization who tried to resist or otherwise respond to the European invasion of North America with various strategies. Compiler, with Jay Miller and Richard A. European epidemics decimated Indian populations, with many tribes being wiped out entirely. Securing Indian country as a national resource was essential to national consolidation and expansion, and few people knew more about securing Indian land than he did.
Nash, review of New Worlds for All, p. Establishing the sovereignty of the United States required wrestling with the sovereignty of Indian nations and their place in American society. Some of the chiefs who ate dinner with Washington in New York or Philadelphia would not have been surprised to be waited on by black slaves; like Washington, they were slaveholders. But theirs was not the Indian world Washington saw and knew; the Indian world he saw was the world most Americans saw. His previous books include The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities, nominated for a 1995 Pulitzer Prize; The Western Abenakis of Vermont, 1600-1800: War, Migration, and the Survival of an Indian People; and Crown and Calumet: British-Indian Relations, 1783-1815. Calloway's discussion of conflict and cooperation includes the use of natural resources and shared knowledge about trail networks, herbal medicines, metal tools, and weapons. By creating the volume, the editor Colin G.
He might have seen black faces; at a time when buying and selling people was as common as buying and selling land, traders, Indian agents, army officers, and settler colonists took African slaves with them when they crossed the Appalachians. An ambitious young man in the 1750s, Washington already owned shares in the Ohio Company, which claimed immense tracts mostly in present-day Ohio. When he speculated in Indian lands, fought Indian enemies, and exchanged wampum belts with Indian chiefs, he touched the edges of an indigenous continent crisscrossed by networks of kinship, exchange, and alliance among multiple nations. Expertly authored by Colin G. Thomson was an adopted Delaware. By the time Washington died, Indian power remained formidable in many areas of the continent, and American sovereignty remained contested in many spaces, but the United States had become a central presence in the world of all Indian peoples east of the Mississippi, and American expansion into Indian country was well under way. For Washington, land acquisition was at the heart of the story; the people who lived on the land were incidental, part of the landscape to be dealt with rather than free people with their own cultures, interests, goals, and agendas.
Insightful and illuminating but relentlessly squirm-inducing. He would have spoken with Native people who could speak English and who, their own languages lacking profanity, had learned to swear in it. Calloway From Our Blog Just over 250 years have passed since the signing of the Treaty of Paris on 10 February 1763. Roger Bishop is a Nashville bookseller and a frequent contributor to BookPage. The president delivered a speech that had been written in advance. Calloway summarizes the transformational, and destructive, impact this had on the Native American way of life.
No gallery of Native American artifacts graced Mount Vernon as it did Monticello. Posted on February 10, 2014. Kirkus Reviews, February 1, 2006, review of The Scratch of a Pen, p. For example, Calloway relates eight accounts of settlers captured by Indians between 1744 and 1783 in his book North Country Captives: Selected Narratives of Indian Captivity from Vermont and. Armed with compass, chains, and logbooks, surveyors were the outriders of an advancing settler society intent on turning Indian homelands and hunting territories into a commodity that could be measured and bounded, bought and sold, and Indians knew it. At his death, Washington owned tens of thousands of acres of former Indian land, and frontier tribes were in steady retreat.