# Price elasticity of demand pdf. Measuring Price Elasticity of Demand: Percentage, Total Outlay, Point and Arc Methods 2019-01-21

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## 5 Types of Price Elasticity of Demand

As with the rise and fall in their prices, the demand decreases or increases moderately. Examples of add-on products are ink-jet printer cartridges or college textbooks. Whereas, if there are no close substitutes for a product, then its demand is said to be inelastic. Demand is generally inelastic in the short period. Likewise, when price increases, the demand decreases in the same proportion. The movement from point B to point C shows unitary elastic demand as total expenditure has remained unchanged with the change in price.

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## Measuring Price Elasticity of Demand: Percentage, Total Outlay, Point and Arc Methods

However, it is difficult to say, which particular factor or combination of factors determines the elasticity. Such as, tea and coffee are close substitutes and if the price of tea increases, then people will switch to the coffee and demand for the tea will decrease significantly. On the other hand, if the price of Campa Cola falls, many consumers will change from other cold drinks to Campa Cola. Elasticity along a straight line demand curve varies from zero at the quantity axis to infinity at the price axis. Here, price elasticity of demand can be calculated as Unlike price elasticity of supply, price elasticity of demand is always a negative number because quantity demanded and price of the commodity share inverse relationship. Demand is unit elastic when the absolute value of demand elasticity is equal to 1, which means that demand will move proportionately with economic changes. Demand tends to be more elastic if the time involved is long.

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## Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand

While comparing the expenditure, we may get one of three outcomes. Thus, these are some of the important determinants of elasticity of demand that every firm should understand properly before deciding on the price of their offerings. Therefore, given the time, they can substitute the material whose price has risen. In the graph, total outlay or expenditure is measured on the X-axis while price is measured on the Y-axis. A grasp of demand elasticity guides firms toward more optimal competitive behavior and allows them to make precise forecasts of their production needs. Total Outlay Method Total outlay method, also known as total expenditure method of measuring price elasticity of demand was developed by Professor Alfred Marshall. Therefore, the demand for essential goods is perfectly inelastic.

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## 9 Major Factors which Affects the Elasticity of Demand of a Commodity

Conversely, if no substitutes are available, demand for a good is more likely to be inelastic. It is also called highly elastic demand or simply elastic demand. If the price of a commodity having several uses is very high, its demand will be small and it will be put to the most important uses and if the price of such a commodity falls it will be put to less important uses also and consequently its quantity demanded will rise significantly. Methods of Measuring Price Elasticity of Demand There are basically four ways by which we can measure price elasticity of demand. In the given figure, price and quantity demanded are measured along the Y-axis and X-axis respectively.

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## 5 Types of Price Elasticity of Demand

In the given figure, price and quantity demanded are measured along the Y-axis and X-axis respectively. Example-3: The demand schedule for milk is given in Table-3: Calculate the price elasticity of demand and determine the type of price elasticity. Unitary Elastic Demand : When the proportionate change in demand produces the same change in the price of the product, the demand is referred as unitary elastic demand. This means that the same quantity will be demanded regardless of the price. Here, rise in price and total outlay or expenditure move in opposite direction. Number of Uses: If the commodity under consideration has several uses, then its demand will be elastic.

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## Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand

This is because of the reason that the relationship between price and demand is inverse that can yield a negative value of price or demand. According to this method, price elasticity of demand can be mathematically expressed as For an example: When the price of a commodity was Rs 10 per unit, its demand in the market was 50 units per day. For example: If the price falls by 5% and the demand rises by more than 5% say 10% , then it is a case of elastic demand. A higher demand elasticity for an economic variable means that consumers are more responsive to changes in this variable. For high-income groups, the demand is said to be less elastic as the rise or fall in the price will not have much effect on the demand for a product. In the given figure, price and quantity demanded are measured along Y-axis and X-axis respectively.

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## Price Elasticity of Demand

It is worth mentioning here that for assessing the elasticity of demand for a commodity all the above three factors must be taken into account. In perfectly elastic demand, a small rise in price results in fall in demand to zero, while a small fall in price causes increase in demand to infinity. Demand elasticity measures a for a good when another economic factor changes. Such as car and petrol, pen and ink, etc. If the price of cloth falls, it will mean great saving in the budget of many households and therefore they will tend to increase the quantity demanded of the cloth. The more a purchase is, the more its quantity will fall in response to price rises, that is, the higher the elasticity.

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## What are the Determinants of Elasticity of Demand?

For example, potato chips have a relatively high elasticity of demand because many substitutes are available. In such a case, consumers may switch to another brand of cold drink. However, economists often disregard the negative sign and report the elasticity as an absolute value. The demand for luxurious goods such as car, television, furniture, etc. . Such as, if the commodity is used for a single purpose, then the change in the price will affect the demand for commodity only in that use, and thus the demand for that commodity is said to be inelastic.

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## 5 Types of Price Elasticity of Demand

The result will be less accurate when the changes are large. However, a slight increase in price would stop the demand. We thus see that demand is generally more elastic in the long run than in the short run. Perfectly inelastic demand is graphed as a vertical line and indicates a price elasticity of zero at every point of the curve. The demand for the Comfort Goods is neither elastic nor inelastic.

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