Because Kongo had been undergoing civil wars, more people had been captured and sold into slavery in recent years, among them trained soldiers. This sharply reduced the rate of manumissions in the state. Tensions between England and Spain over territory in southern made slaves hopeful of reaching Spanish territory, particularly the free black community of , founded in 1738 outside. The Spanish promised freedom and land at St. That same year there was another uprising in Georgia, and the next year another took place in South Carolina, probably inspired by the Stono Rebellion - at the time, colonial officials believed as much.
The men allowed the innkeeper at Wallace's Tavern to live because he was known to treat his slaves with more kindness than other slaveholders. American Negro Slave Revolts Fifth ed. Colonial officials believed these were inspired by the Stono Rebellion, but historians think the increasingly harsh conditions of slavery since the beginning of the 18th century under the rice and cotton cultures were sufficient to cause. Paul's Parish, less than twenty miles from Charlestown. They gathered strength in numbers by recruiting more slaves and burning plantations on their way.
Slave owners who treated their slaves too harshly were subject to fines under the Negro Act in an implicit nod to the idea that harsh treatment might contribute to rebellion. In addition, the legislature passed the to tighten controls: it required a ratio of one white to ten blacks on any plantation. The Great Stono River Slave Rebellion of 1739. Jemmy, the leader of the revolt, was a literate slave described as Angolan, which likely meant from the kingdom of Kongo in Central Africa. When at Stono's Bridge, they proceeded to raid Hutcheson's store.
With this act looming in the minds of slaves, it might have been a reason why they rebelled. Owners were permitted to kill rebellious slaves, if necessary. A group of the slaves who escaped fought a pitched battle with a militia a week later approximately 30 miles 50 km from the site of the first conflict. They burned six plantations and killed 23 to 28 whites along the way. Stono was 150 miles 240 km from the Florida line.
Most of the captured slaves were executed; the surviving few were sold to markets in the. As planters had imported many slaves to satisfy the increased demand for labor, most slaves were native Africans. They were bound for Spanish Florida. Thirty members of the rebel force escaped, many of whom were hunted down the following week. Slavery was still practiced as late as the 1870s.
Some farmers after the rebellion left their homes, going with their families to places that were more easily defended. Such was the impact of the incident that the South Carolina legislature passed the Negro Act in the following year to restrict slave assembly, banned their education, and closely monitored their movements. It also enacted a 10-year moratorium against importing African slaves, and established penalties against ' harsh treatment of slaves. Local officials were authorized to mount penalties against white men who did not carry arms after 29 September. Led by an named Jemmy, a band of twenty slaves organized a rebellion on the banks of the Stono River.
What exactly triggered the Stono Rebellion is not clear. They killed all whites they encountered except for one man. In the ensuing confrontation, 23 whites and 47 slaves were killed. The Portuguese-speaking slaves in South Carolina were more likely to have learned about offers of freedom by Spanish agents. Certainly this influenced the potential rebels and made them willing to accept their situation. They would also have been attracted to the Catholicism of. The band reached the Edisto River where white colonists descended upon them, killing most of the rebels.
The lieutenant governor hired and Indians and other slaves to track down and capture the Africans who had escaped from the battle. South Carolina kept these restrictions against manumission until slavery was abolished after the. National Humanities Center Resource Toolbox. Some of the rebels spoke Portuguese. They killed at least 20 whites, but spared others. The Spanish promised freedom and land at to slaves escaped from the British colonies.
The survivors were sold off to the. About forty whites and probably as many blacks were killed during the Stono insurrection. They would also have been attracted to the Catholicism of Spanish Florida. Yet white fears echoed for months. These people continued to live in a population dominated by blacks as a populative minority. Additionally, the Act also sought to improve working conditions for slaves, with a view to discourage the idea of rebellion.