Advocates of change seek to control countermovements and backlash crowds, as well as those expressive crowds and fads that anesthetize people to their grievances, whereas advocates of stability seek to control crowds and movements that undermine public order or threaten revolution. According to Le Bon both these are due to the common unconscious factors. In the crowd the mind of the individual acts in a manner in which it would not act if left alone. Allport insisted instead that collective behaviour involves merely a group of people doing what they previously wanted to do but for which they lacked the occasion and the support of like-minded associates. The theory for instance, explains how cultural values. The theory of crowd behaviour has moved away from the older perspective McDougall, Le Bon, etc. American social psychologist Leon Festinger and colleagues first elaborated the concept of deindividuation in 1952.
Crowd can be defined as, large number of people gathered at one place for a shared purpose. Early social psychologists such as Gustavo Le Bon and Gabrial Tarde suggested the origins of crowds in her instincts and mass imitation. Crowd members stimulate each other which heightens and intensifies the responses of each individual. The frustration function accounts for the undesirability of crowding effects, and a behavioral rule accounts for the tendency of individuals to look for better locations. In terms of these common elements, crowds form, feel and act.
Some of the people present in the crowd may be more impulsive, while others are passive supporters. From the evidence presented above it could be said that while the feeling of anonymity can come from crowd membership, it is not always associated with the loss of self. From both a communications and public relations viewpoint, the theory of impression management suggests the vital ways in which one establishes relationship between personal or organizational goals and their intended actions which create public perception. Group mind makes people feel, think and act in a manner quite different from that in which each individual would feel, think and act where he in a state of isolation. Examples of geography affecting us on a regular basis are shown from everyday experiences. When new and better locations become available, individuals are likely to move toward them. According to Le Bon 1895 , collective outbursts are a feature of the mass society which is characteristic of modern age with huge cities, in which crowd mentality prevails.
Its mental level is very low. Some of the members within a crowd are impulsive and some are passive supporters. Violence becomes possible because each person is no longer checked by his own super-ego. It is a mind of its own distinct from minds working on different levels. This behavior comes from an archaic shared unconscious and is therefore uncivilized in nature.
Situations at home, in the offices or among the friends circle or elsewhere may have produced certain unconscious and pent up aggressiveness. Additionally, Le Bon's theory ignores the socio-cultural context of the crowd, which some theorists argue can disempower social change. People who are frustrated due to rigid socialization process and parental care, excessive control by parents during early childhood, and their dictational attitude without sufficient love and care, people who are suppressed and over controlled by seniors without getting a chance to express their independent view, originality or talents and abilities, people whose desires are obstructed by rigid social conditions and hence suppressed and repressed ordinarily take part in a crowd behaviour. The main problems of collective behaviour which have to be explained are: a The homogeneity of crowds, and b The emergence of violent behaviour. But, he has been criticised on the ground that only gathering or aggregation of some people with a common motivation will not lead to a crowd behaviour or crowd mind. Third, every instance of collective behaviour either alters or strengthens the makeup of group and community leadership. Reicher and Stott argued that the rioters did not lose their identities in the riots but rather they switched to the social identity which resulted in a collective action.
The first was John Calhoun's study of Norway rats. According to these theories the individuals lost their identity in the crowd hence their responsibility and behaved like primitive animals. In the light of the evidence presented by Zimbardo it could be argued that anonymity is indeed associated with the loss of self. But in a mob there may be some sane and disciplined person who give proper guidance to some unruly persons to behave in a more restrained manner. Social identity theorists do not see this feature of crowd behaviour as negative but rather they explain crowd behaviour in terms.
The theory of crowd behaviour has moved away from the older perspective McDougall, Le Bon, etc. Their goal was to bring social laws into harmony with biological laws. This meant that from 58 to 62 Norway rats would be forced to live in the middle two compartments. Turner says that, the motives and actions of crowd members differ from one another. Freud 1922 tried to uncover the unconscious well-springs of crowd behaviour. He is no longer himself, but has become an automation who has ceased to be guided by his will…. The Freudian theory is clearly unable to explain all these features of crowd behaviour.
Although early research tended to focus on broad conceptual issues surrounding consumers and their sense of self, recent research takes a more granular approach, breaking down the relationship between identity concerns and consumption to look at the effects of specific self-related goals and of different aspects of self-identity on consumer behavior. Soon, shouting and throwing rocks seems to become an acceptable crowd behavior, and within minutes, the rest of the crowd is shouting and throwing rocks, too. Le Bon argued that the concept of anonymity in the crowd is not beneficial at all. Emergent norm theory states that crowd behavior is guided by unique social norms, which are established by members of the crowd. Generally, such people identify themselves with the crowd situation and actively participate in the crowd behaviour. Felipe Méndez-Valderrama, professor of physics, University of Los Andes, Bogota, Colombia; and Jeffrey Silver, senior analyst at Metron Inc. A Tentative Theory of Crowd Behaviour: With the knowledge now available it may be stated that the homogeneity of crowd arises from some intense and widespread dissatisfaction with the established government or with the established and prevailing social structure.