He labelled these Theory X and Theory Y. X-Type organizations tend to be top heavy, with managers and supervisors required at every step to control workers. Management by direction and control may not succeed as it is a questionable way of motivating people whose physiological and safety needs are reasonably satisfied and whose social, esteem and self-actualization needs are becoming predominant. Appraisals are regular but, unlike in Theory X organizations, they are used to encourage open communication rather than control staff. After reading you will understand the background and the practical basics of these leadership styles. Theory-X assumptions are: 1 most people dislike and will avoid it to the extent possible, therefore 2 they must be continually coerced, controlled, and threatened with to get the work done, and that 3 they have little or no , prefer to avoid , and choose above everything else.
However, it's important that you challenge your assumptions and review your team members' individual requirements regularly. Thus: The first part asked a participant to write creative and imaginative stories in response to six ambiguous pictures. Theory-Y believers based firms with empowered employees. This article and video will explore McGregor's theory further, and we'll look at how it applies in the workplace. Critical note on the McGregor Theory The McGregor Theory X and Theory Y are not based on a single truth.
Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. How can managers resolve the confusion? Theory-Y assumptions are: 1 physical and mental effort are natural and most people depending on the work environment find work to be a source of , 2 they generally, on their own , self-control, self-direction, , and ingenuity in pursuit of and collective company goals, 3 they either seek responsibility or learn to accept it willingly, and that 4 their full potential is not tapped in most organizations. Unlike, decentralisation of authority is presumed in theory Y, which involves employees participation in management and decision-making. Your rating is more than welcome or share this article via Social media! As a consequence, Stockton managers used a less structured pattern of formal practices that left the scientists in the lab free to respond to the changing task situation. Selective use of training programs and a general emphasis on appropriate management styles will move them toward a task-organization fit. Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized.
As a result, they must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives. Distribution of influence: The Akron plant and the Stockton laboratory also differed substantially in how influence was distributed and on the character of superior-subordinate and colleague relations. In Akron, the technology of the task was so dominant that top managerial behavior which was not focused primarily on the task might have reduced the effectiveness of performance. A close reading of The Human Side of Enterprise reveals that McGregor simply argues for managers to be open to a more positive view of workers and the possibilities that create enthusiasm. The Theory Y assumptions would suggest that they should have been more motivated. Their employees are accustomed to coercion and control and will therefore not make any effort at all or bear responsibility.
Tyler has spent a significant portion of her professional life informally managing projects. The Theory X manager assumes employees hate the idea of having to go to work and do so only to earn a paycheck and the security it offers. What do you think motivates your people to come to work each morning? Theory Y therefore assumes that control, rewards and punishments are not the only ways to stimulate people. Managing the Project Team is a process you complete in the Human Resource Management knowledge area. In contrast, Theory Y tends to be favored by organizations that have a flatter structure, and where people at the lower levels are involved in decision making and have some responsibility. These managers tend to micro-manage, be extremely task oriented and not put much emphasis on building positive relationships.
See for example Paul R. Based on the premises concerning human behaviour, Prof. Theory Z also makes assumptions about company culture. Circumstance can also affect your management style. Related: So which Management style do you prefer?.
She is also a Content writer, Business Coach and Company Trainer and lives in the Netherlands Europe. The managers influenced by Theory X believe that everything must end in blaming someone. Direct supervision and emphasis on achieving targets may be somewhat suitable for manufacturing-related organizations. Basic human needs are the fundamental aspects of human nature. So grab your bomb repellent while we explore these two different types of managers by discussing the assumptions of each. The strength of the contingency approach we have outlined is that it begins to provide a way of thinking about this complexity, rather than ignoring it. Theory Z was developed by William Ouchi, in his book 1981 'Theory Z: How American management can Meet the Japanese Challenge'.
Though your assumptions about what motivates your people will likely have the biggest impact on which of these two approaches you take, your choice can also be shaped by several other factors. With the onslaught of B2B social media, and the break down of formal business approach, business is also being conducted more around Theory Y than old school Theory X. Unsatisfied lower needs will dominate unsatisfied higher needs and must be satisfied before the person can climb up the hierarchy. The task at Akron had already been clearly defined and that definition had, in a sense, been incorporated into the automated production flow itself. Teamwork, quality circles, and brainstorming sessions are used in theory Y organizations in order to provide platforms for employees to share their ideas and opinions.