Predictability: The rules, regulations, specialization, structure and training import predictability and thereby ensure stability in the organization. Organizational differentiation means un-bundling and re-arranging of activities. It is therefore very important that bureaucratic organisations properly inform employees well in advance about their approach to work and requires them to accept this. Some advantages for bureaucratic structures for top-level managers are they have a tremendous control over organizational structure decisions. An employee from the Finance department could move to the Sales department for a specific project. Importance of goal setting Well specified and clear goals improve performance in an organization by: · making clear what people have to do; · solving specific problems related to the work as they emerge during the process of goal setting; · reducing ambivalence in the assigned work and thus encouraging increasing efforts; · supporting people to find a connection between their work and the achievements of the organization; · assisting individuals in allocating their time, efforts and personal resources to important areas; · giving a feeling of accomplishment and contentment when specified goals are achieved; and · providing some control over the people and their work in an organization. This leads to a lackadaisical attitude towards new innovations, quality, and customer satisfaction.
Another offshoot of this is the actual loss or lack of control of the managers even within their own departments or jurisdictions, since their employees would not know where to attach their loyalties to, or who to report to. In bureaucratic organizational structures, there are many hierarchical positions. A policy and procedures manual is a good example of formal records. Organization-based power refers to the power beyond the range of legitimate authority because of the position which a person has in the organization Milgram, 1974. Weber termed this substantive rationality and considered it problematic in modern society in that rationalization of social life makes it difficult for people to pursue particular values. Lack of proper coordination often causes conflicts in an organization. Specification of jobs with detailed rights, obligations, responsibilities, scope of authority.
The Principles of Scientific Management. Efficient performance of tasks This is down to the fact that the tasks are performed by trained personnel or individuals that have special training or knowledge with respect to the task at hand. Precision, speed, unambiguity, … strict subordination, reduction of friction and of material and personal costs- these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration. Weber's bureaucratic approach considers the organization as a part of broader society. If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our Free Newsletter for the latest posts on Management models and methods.
The emphasis was on establishing a universal set of management principles that could be applied to all organizations. A system can be perceived as composed of some components, functions and processes Albrecht, 1983. The organizational structure would then be used to establish a pattern within the organization on matters such as hierarchy, authority, division of work, and relationships and connections between and among the different functions. The project manager becomes the focal point for information and activities related to a specific project. Therefore, an equilibrium among the social system, the technical system and the environment is necessary to make the organization more effective.
According to Max Weber, bureaucracy is an ideal organizational form. Chandler 1962 studied four large United States corporations and proposed that an organization would naturally evolve to meet the needs of its strategy -- that form follows function. Improved sense of commitment and dedication to their jobs Members of the organization will have more than a glimpse of the role they play in the grand scheme of things. Features of a Bureaucratic Structure The following features and characteristics are required in order for any bureaucratic structure to work. They included a tool grinder, machine tool table, a chuck, a tool-feeding device for lathes, a work carrier for lathes, a boring-bar puppet, and two boring and turning mills Nelson, 1980, p. Achievement-Based Advancement As 20th century Europe urbanized, failures, such as the series of miscues following the assassination of the Austrian archduke that led to World War I, contributed to the rise of hierarchies based on competency. According to Max Weber, the bureaucratic organization is the most rational means to exercise a vital control over the individual workers.
· Simon's bounded rationality model, which is used as an aggregative model in administrative practices. A responsive corporation makes ethical decisions based on long-term economic decisions. On the other hand, as pioneers in management theory, they studied their specific environment and devised schemes for improving those particular factory systems. Such divergence decreases performance, when growing. Another popular theory is that in larger organizations, workers' jobs become more specialized.
According to Senge, there are five disciplines important to the learning organization. In the network organization traditional organizational boundaries are blurred and different units or even different organizations achieve a high degree of integration as they pursue some common goals. It is applied through the following: — A single superior is in place in order to establish a unity of command. · Unity of command This means taking orders from and being responsible to only one superior. Implicit in these theories was the idea that organizational growth is synonymous with expansion. If the mission is to serve the organization itself, and those within it, e.
Bureaucracy definition: what is bureaucracy? Please by the claims made and adding. The free market system was seen as a self-controlling mechanism, whereby an organization producing the best goods and services would prosper. Impersonal Regulations and clear requirements create distant and impersonal relationships between employees, with the additional advantage of preventing nepotism or involvement from outsiders or politics. Harvard Business Review, May-June: 149-160. Conclusion Mintzberg suggests five types of design configuration, and discusses why one might be better than another in a given situation.
· Equity Fairness, justice and equity should prevail in the organization. The tension between bureaucratic structures and non-bureaucratic is echoed in Burns and Stalker's distinction between mechanistic and organic structures. Rationality: A measure of objectivity is ensured by prescribing in advance the criteria far decision making in routine situations. In agricultural research organizations, committees are formed for research, staff evaluation or even allocation of land for experiments. The operation research approach was suggested in 1940. Taylor presented scientific management concepts, Weber gave the bureaucratic approach, and Fayol developed the administrative theory of the organization. A more dynamic environment probably requires more attention to integration.